Image via Wikicommons.
Submarine volcanoes, both active and extinct, are abundant along mid-ocean ridges where Earth’s tectonic plates diverge. And, though largely unseen, eruptions beneath the water’s surface can be just as volatile as those on land. If you were to listen to a volcano erupt underwater (like the one in the video below), you may hear the thunderous sound of magma escaping into the sea, muffled but still perceptible, even under thousands of feet of water.
These explosions can have repercussions on land, even the potential to generate tsunamis. But underwater volcanoes still have their redeeming qualities. On a recent expedition, scientists discovered hammerheads and silky sharks living inside one of these deep sea volcanoes off the Solomon Islands.
They may also play a crucial role in coral reef development. When frothy magma containing gas bubbles flows from an underwater volcano and comes into contact with the water, a rapid cooling occurs, trapping pockets of air within the rock and allowing it to float. The resulting stone, called pumice, is sometimes spotted on the ocean’s surface following an undersea eruption.
Pumice can stay afloat for months, traveling thousands of miles before making landfall or becoming waterlogged and sinking to the ocean floor. Along the way, an array of organisms hitchhike their way to other parts of the ocean on these pumice rafts, colonizing new reefs and replenishing those already existing systems. Some of these pumice pieces may also wash ashore, where it’s likely their mobile species, like crabs, would disembark.
When scientists tracked some of these pieces of floating volcanic stone in the southwest Pacific, they found that the pumice traversed nearly 3,000 miles in just eight months. Aided by wind and ocean currents, the stones carried more than 80 species of corals, anemones, barnacles, mollusks and crabs to the coast of Australia and the Great Barrier Reef.
This dispersal of marine life over miles of ocean waters allows new species to settle and populate reef systems. Coral reefs are one of the most biologically diverse habitats in the ocean, and they may have submarine volcanoes to thank.